Beginning of August this year, I was in Barcelona, chilling at Las Ramblas and checking on the people passing by… The weather was so good: a bright sunny day with no breeze at all, very dry, a perfect day to prolong my “art of doing nothing” at the beach. But when I was thinking of moving my lazy ass, I noticed these two girls wandering around. The reason why they caught my attention was because they had an eye-catching look: high heels with the kind of iconic wrap dress that could be a DVF design and fancy shades… Although I tried not to judge the book by the cover, these characters were kind of stylish to me.

They stopped few meters away from me and they started to take some selfies and imitating some model poses all over Las Ramblas. The scene that was happening amused me; at least they were not intimidating by the heat deploying so much energy in the middle of the afternoon. At some point, I was smiling at them and finally that’s how they noticed me. They approached me and one of the girls asked me in English with an accent that I could not recognize: “Sorry to disturb you, but me and my friend would like to have a picture together, could you please shoot us with my phone?” I was happy to do something for them so I took the picture with her iPhone. When I handed over the phone, I asked them: “Where are you from? What brought you guys to Barcelona?” They replied that they were from Seoul – Korea and they were visiting the city of Gaudi and they improvised a photo shooting at Las Ramblas as part of their occupation. As curious as I am, I asked: “What’s your occupation?” The answer I was given was: “Blogger slash artist photographer”. I was thinking out loud: “Photographer? What kind of photographer… “Artist? What kind of artist?” They showed me their Instagram** account and it was written under their profile pictures: “artist / photographer”. When I scrolled down the Instagram pictures, I realized that photography was more iPhone photo shooting for Instagram posts: foodies/vegan vibes, name brand clothing and traveling pictures. I saw some accessories for sale as well: mainly bracelets that they said they made after returning from a trip to Latin America. I took it as their “artwork”, but clearly this is not what I expected by the self-definition of being an artist… I politely wish them a good stay in Barcelona and they proposed to follow each other on Instagram. I said why not, but I realized I was abroad with no 4G/3G data SIM card and no WiFi. I was abandoned by technology…

Guess what? Today in 2018, there have never been so many people calling themselves “artist”, “photographer”, “model”, “curator”, and even “celebrities” in the whole mankind History. Strangely, I have decided to use this fact to make my own math. As a would-be scientist, please allow me to introduce with humbleness and great honor my technology equations of the world. This is ideation based on my own formulas so welcome to my lab.


今年八月初,我來到了巴塞隆納,享受著某天蘭布拉大道(Las Ramblas)的悠閒時光,欣賞著路邊來來往往的人群…那天的天氣實在太美好:艷陽高照,無風,極其乾燥,正是讓我在這海邊繼續悠哉我的”無所事事之藝術”哲學的上午。但當我正準備要從我這懶洋洋的屁股上站起來時,我發現附近有兩位女士在不遠處閒晃。讓我注意到她們的原因是,她們的打扮還挺時髦的,是兩個吸睛的女孩兒:踩著高跟鞋、身上穿著代表性的裹(連)身裙,那一身極有可能是品牌DVF (Diane von Furstenberg)並且呈現出它華麗的色調…然而,我盡量不以貌取人,這兩位女士的穿著打扮讓我覺得她們似乎還挺時尚的呢。

她們在離我幾公尺處拿著手機正在玩著自拍照並且在整條蘭布拉大道(Las Ramblas)模仿一些模特兒的姿勢照相。我看到這眼前的場景不經讓我會心一笑;至少她們沒被今天的夏熱豔陽所擊退,而且還能為這樣的酷熱的午後帶來些許能量。某一瞬間我向她們微笑並且她們也注意到了我。她們踩著鞋跟向著我的方向走近,其中一個女孩用帶著我認不出的英文口音問說:「不好意思可以打擾你一下嗎?我和我的朋友想一起拍張合照,你可以用我的手機幫我們拍嗎?」我非常樂意能幫她們拍照,我順勢接手她給我的iPhone並幫她們拍了張照片。當我還回手機時,我問她們:「你們是從哪裡來的?是什麼原因讓你們來到巴塞隆納?」她們回答說她們來自韓國-首爾,來巴塞隆納參訪Gaudi(高地)的城市並且表示在這條蘭布拉大道(Las Ramblas)拍照是她們的工作項目之一。因為好奇心使然我繼續詢問:「所以你們的職業是?」接著,我得到的答案是這樣:「部落客兼藝術家 攝影師。」我在腦中大喊著:「攝影師?這是什麼樣的攝影師…’藝術家??什麼樣的藝術家啊…這哪..哪哪是啊…@#$%^&*?!」接著她們秀出她們的Instagram帳號,我看到她們帳號首頁照片底下自我簡介還真的寫著:「藝術家/ 攝影師」。當我接著滑下滾軸看著她們的IG照片時發現,有絕大部分貼出的照片皆是用iPhone所拍的:美食家/ 純素食主義者/ 名牌服裝 以及一些旅行的相片。我也看到了一些她們拍賣的珠寶首飾在上面:大部分是她們從拉丁美洲回來後製作的手鐲以及手鍊。我只好將就把‘它們’當成’她們 ’口中所謂的”藝術作品”,但顯而易見又違心論的,這跟我想像中我對於成為一名藝術家的期待和定義完完全全地’我 ’無法認同…我禮貌性地祝福她們在巴塞隆納玩得盡興愉快,她們建議我們彼此交換Instagram可以互相關注。我心裡想想也沒什麼不好,但這時我意識到我人正在國外而且沒有4G/3G的SIM卡,當下也沒有WiFi。就在那時,我被科技給放逐邊疆…

你猜怎麼著了?有始至今到現在2018年,在人類的歷史上從未有過這麼多的人隨口便稱自己為”藝術家”、”攝影師”、”模特兒”、”策展人”,甚至是”名人”。奇怪的是,我決定用這個事實來做一套我自己的數學理論。作為一名’可能成為-科學家 ’的我,請允許我以謙遜且榮幸的態度來介紹我的世界級科技方程式。這是出自於我本身概念所生產出的公式,所以 別猶豫了!歡迎各位進入我的實驗室吧!



Equation #1:

Tagging + Labeling + X = Hashtagging / The power of social media

The Internet is a powerful tool that enables some people to have an open-window onto the world. It allows these privileged human beings to travel via few clicks, to encounter a new culture via few clicks, to share experiences with strangers in few clicks, to offer or impose theirs opinions in few clicks, to critic or to “like” in a few clicks… What a world! This has been made possible thanks to technology: connectivity and digitalization. What a great achievement to have unlocked the potential of progress in order to boost interactions between people. Our generation is definitely the most educated, the most connected, the most adaptable and the most resourced thanks to progress made in technology. That being said, when we look more carefully the outcomes of these blessings, it appears that most of us use it in certain ways more than others.

Firstly, a key metric of connectivity and digitalization is the use of social media. As everybody has figured out already, in terms of economic terms, social influence, cultural propaganda and self-promotion, social media have plunged mankind in a state of mind where we are fully receptive to consumption stimulus. We are diving into the dark waters of “tagging” and “labeling”. Let me explain, Twitter, Instagram or Facebook** for example, they allow you to shape your own world: no matter real or unreal you can promote your reality or fantasy to become a statement. How this statement is conveyed? Technology plays a key role because the coding language to spread out your “opinions” is made of algorithms to expand the power of your hashtags signature. It is a new language to pass a message: politically speaking, culturally speaking, the propaganda has been transformed from slogan to hashtags. Tagging has become an art for communication and this is how we spread the news, or should I say, this is how good or bad fake news are shared and commented.

As a result, the second key metric to pay attention to is how do I brand my message? This is how the gurus of marketing and communication will address identity and self-expression for individuals, organizations, businesses and groups of people. It’s really not a critic but just facts; we have all become the product***. As we have become a product***, the mercantilist logic is kicking in to make profit, or should I say: “to influence”. My thoughts were: the majority of artists, creators, individuals or group of people have shaped or transformed their vision of the world, or at least part of it, based on some understanding entries such as: social or cultural context. Here, this is a totally different mindset. By tagging our propaganda in the social media thanks to technology capabilities, we call for labeling things and/or people because that’s the coolest coding or language that we have created. This is how we endorse people nowadays: by checking your WeChat* feed or your Snapchat* account, which means to label you. To be honest, the most eloquent way to recognize the power of that label status of social media is to deeply look at Tinder*. Your “status” is based on your labels being: pictures profile, stories, hashtags… They define you as a person and they become your passport in the community. Technology is so powerful that it has somehow re-shaped our relationships with reality.

In this case, to solve the first equation of the Gaudi Theorem meaning to identify the X, we need to be humble enough to consider the power of social media as the new arena where we all battle to be somebody. Being somebody does not mean being an artist or a photographer. Freedom is also part of the choice.



標記+廠(品/名)牌+X=#hashtagging(使用井字號標誌來標示人/事/物,常用於Instagram與Facebook和其他社交媒體如Twitter) / 社交媒體的力量

網路是一項強大的工具,它能讓某些人打開門戶進入這個世界。它允許這些擁有特權的人們輕輕地用滑鼠點個幾下就能暢遊世界、點個幾下即可體驗新的文化、點個幾下即可與陌生人分享經驗談、點個幾下即可提供或強調他們的觀點,點點滑鼠左鍵即可Enter送出批評與指教或者給它按個讚(Like)…這 真是個美好的世界啊!能讓這夢想成真多虧於科技的到來:連結性與數位化。為了促進人與人之間的互動,打開一門具有進步潛力的偉大成就。我們這一代絕對是受過最多教育、彼此間最具有關連性、最具適應性的人類以及我們所擁有最多的資源,這都要多虧於科技的進步。話雖如此,但當我們更湊近點更仔細審視這些成果所帶來的效益時,它顯示出絕大多數的我們在某方面利用了此功能相較於其他人來的還要多許多。

首先連結性和數位化的關鍵指標來自社交媒體的使用。眾所皆知地,在經濟方面,社會影響力,文化宣傳和自我推銷方面,社交媒體讓我們人類處於一種完全接受刺激消費的地方。我們正深入”tagging 標記”和”labeling 標籤”的黑暗水域。讓我來解釋一下這說法,像是Twitter推特,Instagram(簡稱IG)或Facebook臉書 來舉例,它們可以讓你塑造自己的世界:無論真實還是虛幻,你都可以宣傳你的現實或幻想成為一種自我說故事的方式。那該如何傳達這種方式呢?科技在這佔據了關鍵角色,因為編碼語言可以散播你發表的“意見”─ 此由演算法組成,它可以擴展你帳號下所標籤(#hashtags)的內容。在政治上講,從文化上講,這是一種傳遞訊息的新新語言:宣傳已從口中大聲喊出口號轉變為網路標籤。標記(Tagging)已經成為一種交流的藝術,然而它也是我們傳播新聞的方式,或者我應該說,對於好消息還是假新聞的分享和評論的交流平台。

因此,第二個關鍵指標要注意的是:我該如何宣傳我的訊息?這就像是行銷和溝通的專業人士一樣的 去向個人,組織,企業和人群自我表達並描述自身身分問題那般般。我真的不是在批評而是形容一個事實;我們都已經搖身一變變成了商品,當我們成為了商品後,嘿嘿 重商主義的邏輯就靠過來賺了,或者我應該說是:”影響”。我的想法是:大多數藝術家,創作者,個人或一群人


在這種情況下,要解決高地定理的第一個方程問題,意思是要去識別X,我們必須能夠謙虛地去考慮到社交媒體的力量 ─ 作為一個新的競技場,每個人都互相爭奪成為每個人。作為某人並不意味著你成為了藝術家或者攝影師。在這其中,自由本身也是選擇的一部分,不是嗎?



Equation #2:

Hashtagging + Ego + Y = Call me an artist / The Power of “Me”

Now, we know what is the meaningful activity of hashtagging, this is to position oneself with a status and a social label. The next sequence is we need to go beyond in order to envision the “why?” What is the final destination of that process? Why do we put so many resources in technology? What do we try to achieve?

Machine learning, augmented reality, virtual reality, robotics, blockchain… These are technology drivers that are the fascinating trends to lead us toward new way of living, buying, being. The human being is a fantastic animal that has always found ways to flatter herself/himself over the rest of species and also over Nature. Like it or not, I believe the ego dilemma issue: self-satisfaction, self-contentment and selfishness. The results of this sum will always be true whatever the rounding you wish to put into it: Hashtagging + (plus) Ego +(plus) Y = (always equals) “The Power of Me”.  This is the human nature very well portrayed nowadays via the labels associated to “celebrity” or “being famous”. Artists are now more or less people having privileged and decent lifestyle. Please allow me to bring some nuances here: it is great to be rewarded or remunerated for your own intellectual production once you are still alive. Creation is a process governed by rules and principles, so it makes sense that “influencers” in that field obtain the fair compensation for their great work. Nevertheless, “The Power of Me” will urge people to use social and economic pedestal to set the appreciation for success and, to some extend in a strange way in the area of Arts. “Call me an artist” is no longer the result of passion, dedication, talent, research, experiment or ideation. None of these are the magic Y. Unfortunately, in this equation the mysterious Y comes with “recognition”. “The Fables of Jean de la Fontaine” depicted this very human nature by using animals. Indeed, “Le Corbeau et le Renard” “The Fox and the Crow” has given us since the XVII century some ideas about the need of recognition we all have deep inside of us. We strive for this moment of exaltation and rejoice when we are flattered even though the senders of the message are your worst enemies. What a coincidence! In search of power, we can seduce others, but most importantly others can easily seduce us… At which cost? I let you reflect on this to determine at which cost we have been failing many times to satisfy our own glory and our moments of fame.

By far, the Y of this equation relies on how we direct technology to serve us at the detriment of others. Recognition is a key factor to be comprehended to assess what is at stake: “The Power of Me”.



標籤+自我價值+Y=請稱呼我為藝術家/ “我”(自身)的力量

現在我們知道Hashtagging(#標籤)這個動作的含意是什麼了,以它代表的身分和社會標籤來予以定位自我本身。接下來,我們要超越這個思維模式來思考”為什麼?”該標籤(#的動作)的最終目的是什麼?為何我們要為科技投入了這麼多的資源?我們試圖去實現什麼『?』學習操作機械或軟件、將現實加強化、虛擬的現實、機器人(如AI)、區塊鍊(例如虛擬貨幣BTC比特幣)…等等。這些都是科技驅動使人引人入勝的趨勢,它 帶領我們走向新的生活方式、購買模式、重新定義自我。人類是一種奇妙的動物,牠 總能找到讓 她/他自己在其他物種和自然身上奉承的方法。無論你喜歡與否,我相信那些身陷自我價值困境、窘境的狀況:自我滿足、知足以及人類的自私面。無論你多麼希望將哪一個排列或四捨五入,這個方程式各種結果的加總,總是永遠照著同一個方向走:Hashtagging(#)+ (+)自我價值+ Y = (永遠同理可證) “我本身的力量”。使用”標籤label與”(我是)名人”或”讓自己出名”這是現在描繪人性特殊的方式。藝術家們在這裡或多或少能夠呈現些特權和體面的生活方式。。請讓我來描述這中間的差異性:當你活著的時候,能因身為一名知識分子所生產出的成果而受到表揚並獲得報酬是還聽起來還蠻不錯的。創作是一個受(潛)規則和原則之下所被支配的過程,因此,在該領域的”影響者influencers”因其偉大的創作而獲得社會表揚和補償是有道理在的。然而,對於”自我本身的力量”人們使用某種社會和經濟基礎的眼光來欣賞好的生產,在某種程度上,它也奇特地擴展到藝術這一塊領域。”稱我為藝術家吧!”已經不再是充滿激情、奉獻、才華洋溢、研究、實驗及構思後的結論。這些都不是方程式裡Y的神奇力量。不幸的是,在這個等式中,神秘地Y它涵蓋著”識別性質”。法國詩人Jean de la Fontaine尚·德·拉封丹他透過寓言故事來用動物描繪了這種非常人性的一面。事實上,“Le Corbeau et le Renard”– “狐狸與烏鴉” 自十七世紀以來就帶給了我們人類性情中本來就存在的一些深根底固的想法”。當我們被吹捧上天的時候,人們會因為這個時刻而驚喜並且愉悅的不能自己,即使傳送訊息的人是你的眼中釘。真是巧合得不得了!在搜尋權力力量的過程中,我們可以誘導別人,但最重要的是別人也能輕易的來誘導我們…那這樣我們承擔的風險又是什麼呢?我讓你們去反思這一點,去思考有多少次因為要滿足我(你)們自己的輝煌成果以及聲名大噪的那刻而失望、失敗、失落過多少回。

到目前為止,在這著等式中Y 依賴於我們如何直接運用科技去對待他人而造成的傷害。識別性擔任著一個極重要的腳色讓它去評估並且了解其中的利害相關聯性:”我(自身)的力量”。



Equation #3:

Ego + Style + Z = Call us influencers / The power of “us” 

Like I said, when I was at Las Ramblas in Barcelona, the reason why I paid attention to these two characters was because of their clothing style. Really trendy, fashionable… They were the kind of people that one would qualify as a trendsetter. When they introduced themselves they referred to many things that could be summarized in one word: “influencer”. That’s the beauty of social media, this capacity to engage millions of people around a moment, an event or a story. It gives you this feeling that you are part of something. For every major social media, in order to offer the basic features to be seen as a player in the market, you must offer pictures/video sharing, messaging and interactions with others profiles, as well as found via the search engines to expand your network, your references, your inspirations: in other words “your influences”. I call it the new weaponries to take up the battle of influencing. As we commonly say, there are a lot of candidates but only few chosen… To have some impact on others it’s not only a matter of your own will, this is also a question about how others could be receptive to your input, hence it’s a mutual process to rev…

It starts with some key ingredients to turn this equation into a cocktail. “Ego” is the base. As we highlighted before, I consider the individuality as the trigger of engagement, especially because technology calls for individual initiative, as we see a lot on social media but not only. For instance, digitalization is also fostering customization of online services and access to meet individual tastes and preferences. We exist online because of our own characteristics made of personal data collection; sometimes we exist as a solo performer behind an avatar. However, the stage where we perform is almost global. We face a community of people where something special needs to be proposed to engage the crowd. Uniqueness may then emerge from that necessity to shed the lights on more than ego alone: “style”.  You can call it “style” or “originality”, in a nutshell it refers to the same meaning, as the other key ingredient to be blended with “ego” this is that little “plus” that will make you stand out: Ego + Style + Z is the winning formula leading to: “The Power of Us”.

On one hand, it requires creativity and adaptation to bring something new to the flow of feeds provided by self-promotion. On the other hand, it’s a rendez-vous between an individual meeting with an audience and creating such an impact that it will be seen as soft power: the power of influencing others.

Why do we consider this aspect in this Gaudi theorem? Just because this is where technology plays a pivotal role of enhancer. Via connectivity and digitalization, there are a limitless number of opportunities to showcase your style and making an impact on others. The nature of the impact made is then to be discussed because there is a wide spectrum of outcomes: resentment, critics, support, adoration, empathy, etc… What will make the difference in the nature of the outcome will be the dose of Z in the blender. No doubt that Z is the subtle zest of sincerity to added-on in order to address the audience. To my surprise, I realize that technology with no sincere meaning is something empty and useless. Many of us ended up in this dead-end situation where the means are not serving the purpose, therefore the message cannot be heard. Sometimes, we can’t only blame technology but we should direct out focus on the sender. If you want to be called influencers, what is the amount of sincerity you have to invest to create The “Power of Us”? This is your Z.



自我(自尊)+風格+Z=請稱呼我們為具影響力的人”影響者”/ “我們”的力量

就如同我說的那樣,當我在巴塞隆納的蘭布拉大道(Las Ramblas)時,吸引我的眼光的那兩位所扮演的角色,她們的吸睛的地方在於她們的服裝風格。是這麼的時髦,時尚又有品味…他們是那些有資格成為引領潮流的素人。當她們自我介紹時所觸及的詞彙總總,概括他們自己成為所謂的”影響者influencer”,這就是社交媒體如此華麗的地方,這種工具能讓數百萬人在一瞬間、一件事、一則故事,而讓觀眾備受吸引。為了提供在這市場上身為一名參與者的功用,你必須共享並提供圖像/影片,與他人的帳號交流並傳遞訊息,同樣地,它軟體內的搜尋引擎也會擴展你在網路的人氣。提到你的那些相片靈感:換句話說,”它們 是你對外在的影響力”來源。我將之稱為一種新型具有影像力的新型武器。正如同人們常常在說,戰場上滿佈著各個候選人,但卻只有少數人…能真正帶來影響力去影響其他人,這不僅是你自己意願的問題,它也是一個關於別人如何接受你的看法、想法的問題。而這些問題竟然進展成了一種互相提拔、推廣的事兒了…

它從一些關鍵材料部份開始製作這杯方程式的酒,並將此等式變成一杯好喝的雞尾酒。拿”自己Self”用來作為基底。正如我們之前所強調的,我認為人(自我)的性格佔了絕大的影響因素,,特別是因為這項科技必須由人們自己去操作使用,像是我們在社交媒體上面看到的那些發佈,但不僅是如此而已。例如,數位化還有助於用戶在網路方面客製化,並且擁有透過在線服務的功能來滿足個人的品味以及偏好。由於我們每個人都有存取數據的功能,我們存在於網絡;有時候我們也在大頭貼的頭像背後化身為一位表演者而存在著。可是,我們正在努力的舞台它畢竟性屬國際化。我們面對的是一群需要 與人群進行特定溝通方式的人們。然後,具有獨特性的人則從這邊開始脫穎而出,而不再僅僅是以自我來代表”風格style”。你可以將之稱為”風格style”或者”原創(性質)originality”。簡而言之,它指的是與”本身(自我)”加乘在一起的另一個混合關鍵因素。同理可證,這個小小的”+ (plus)”號將會讓你脫穎而出:自我(自尊)+風格+Z=它是一則獲勝的攻勢,帶領這些人朝向:”我們的力量”前進。一方面,它所需要的是創造力和適應環境性,為自我推銷提供新的產物而帶來新的潮流。另一方面,這是與觀賞者進行面對面交談的機會,並且對此產生影響,它被視為微勢力:它即是影響他人的力量。




Equation #4:

Technique + Technology + Culture + U = Art

Bear with me for a short moment; I have almost done my demonstration on how to solve these equations to access to the true meaning of what technology has brought us and eventually to consider what technology can still do for us.

We are not against the concept of progress but we wish we could raise more awareness about the benefits of the changes we are facing. Things move fast and we try to be in control, but the reality is we can’t because consequences of what we are doing are underestimated, or worst are still unknown.

When we turn back to the past, we realize that what we are going through is indeed challenging but not unfamiliar. In the area of Art, technology has always been a disruptor, an enabler or a game changer. Let’s be clear, it will always remain the same. So as conclusion what should we be looking at is how to regard Art from the viewpoint of technology trends?

Going back to the etymology of the word, “technology” comes from two Greek words, transliterated <techne> and <logos>. <Techne> means art, skill, craft, or the way, manner, or means by which a thing is gained. <Logos> means word, the utterance by which inward thought is expressed, a saying, or an expression. So, literally, technology means words or discourse about the way things are gained.



技巧(術)+科技+文化+U (“你”,“我”和“他們”)=藝術


讓我們回到科技(technology)這個詞彙的源頭,”科技technology”是由兩個希臘文字組合而成,音譯<techne ><logos ><Techne>指藝術,技能,工藝或或者方法、方法或獲得物品的手段。<Logos>表示單字,用來表達內心的思想,當你說話或表達時的用語。因此,從字面上來看,科技意味著有關於如何獲得事物的方式之表示或詞彙。



No matter the discipline, the era and the culture: Art is still based on technique that could be transformed over time, or in different places by technology as a mean to achieve a greater outcome.  Hence, what’s the U element? Is it a thing, a quantifier, an absolute value, a concept, a conscious?

I guess it’s more than math. U is the intrinsic value of doing thing. I mean this is the highest value of the “maker”. “U” must be “you”, “me” and “them”. U was Gaudi at Las Ramblas in Barcelona. In other words, the maker inside of us is the key element that could not be replaced by technology. Salud!

無論是紀律、時代、和文化如何隨著歲月流梭:藝術仍然是一種可以基於科技之上隨時間推移而變化萬千的工夫(技能),或者它可以透過科技於不同的領域來實踐更大的質量(結果)。因此,U這個元素到底是什麼?它是一個東西、一個量詞、一個絕對值、一種概念、它是一種有意識的「」?我想這不僅僅是有關於數學(方程式)而已。U它代表著我(你)們做的事情的內在價值。我的意思是,這是對”創作者”最高的表揚。”U”必須是你、”我”、和”他們”加起來的總合。U它曾是在蘭布拉大道(Las Ramblas)的高地。換句話說,我們創造者自身內部最重要的元素是科技它所無法取代的最最最重要的決定因素。Cheers!



Sanza Bulaya

Translation by Coraline Chuang


* Private business making profit based on U

*** U: must be “you”, “me” and “them”


原著:Sanza Bulaya卜尚哲

譯者:Chuang Shih Ning 莊適寧


* 以私人企業所獲得的營利是以U來作為基礎

*** U:必須是你”、“我”和“他們”(的總和)