How Tech Has Shaped Film Making: The Film vs. Digital Debate Is Put to Rest

數位科技如何改變(塑造)電影製作:告別底片電影 vs. 數位電影的辯論賽

 

Charlie Matthau is the director of several motion pictures and movies for television including the critically acclaimed THE GRASS HARP, FREAKY DEAKY, HER MINOR THING, BABY-O, DOIN’ TIME ON PLANET EARTH, and the upcoming BOOK OF LEAH.

THE DIRECTOR ROBERT Rodriguez is famous for getting his shooting done rather quickly. He has described his process as one long day of work, beginning with shots and moving into editing all within the same day. He likes to be able to review his work as it’s produced so that he knows what the final product might look like. Compare that to someone like George Lucas, who spends quite a bit of time and budget in post-production, and it’s easy to see that technology has taken film in very different directions.

Technology’s greatest impact is perhaps felt in new cameras that allow cinematographers to shoot in a higher definition, letting viewers take in more of the amazing work in set design. Technology also drives entire segments of film now, enabling movies that were not possible before. Here are some examples where technology has driven filmmaking.

電影人 Robert Rodriguez勞勃特·羅里葛茲因他拍攝速度之快而成名。他將自己拍攝電影的過程描述為工作極為漫長的一天,從鏡頭前開始,並在同一天進行剪輯製作。他喜歡並且能夠回顧他的作品,這樣他才能知道最終的樣子。相比較下,像George Lucas喬治·盧卡斯他在後期製作的花費中,使用了相當多的時間和預算,而且很容易看得出他將數位技術大量地注入電影中並且把電影帶領到截然不同的方向。科技所帶來最大的影響可能在於新型攝影機可以讓攝影師以更高階的清晰度拍攝,讓觀眾在觀看的時候能獲得更多的感官體驗。科技現在也正在推動整個電影圈,實現了之前無法實現的電影技術,以下是一些數位科技推動電影製作的一些案例。

COSTS

Film is the preferred medium of old school filmmakers, but it’s usually too costly for a studio to authorize. Film carries several disadvantages that dwarf the authenticity that the filmmaker is going for. Aside from the expense, film is impossible to reuse. That means a day of shooting must have footage the crew can use, or else every resource consumed that day was a waste. The costs of film don’t end the day of shooting either. Cinematographers who use film must develop it, and then there is the costly process of editing the film.

Going digital largely means foregoing the large canisters of film that used to be synonymous with filmmaking. It also means production companies complete their shoot schedules with less waste, keeping the entire project under or close to budget.

金費

/膠片是老派電影製作人的首選媒介,但對於電影工作室來說,所需申請的費用成本相對來的高。這使電影製作的實際成效相形見拙。除了費用以外,底片是不能夠重複使用的。這表示每一天都必須準備好足夠的底片在鏡頭後提供工作人員使用,否則當天消耗的每一種資源都會被浪費掉。電影的成本也不會在拍攝當天就結束。使用底片的攝影師必須開發多餘的底片,這使編輯電影的成本相對提高。數位化在很大程度上意味著它是早前大量使用底片拍攝電影及製作的代名詞。這也表示製作公司在完成一部電影中可以減少浪費資源,使整個項目保持在預算之內或者接近其預算。

 

EDITING

Postproduction is another area where digital trumps the usage of film. Adding visual effects to film was often a precise art, where the effect had to blend seamlessly with what was being shot. This was a painstaking process that editors no longer go through. Digital effects are created and added to the shot within the same program or family of programs. This software also allows editors to work on entire sections of a film, easily piecing scenes together after the postproduction effects are added in. That includes audio, which now has a high definition digital file that ensures the audience will hear every word and action that they see.

The end result is a piece of film that looks cleaner, with effects that blend seamlessly with the movie. The audience usually can’t tell when CGI has been used, but it’s a powerful tool film makers have increasingly used to set atmosphere.

編輯製作

將後期製作數位化是另外一種超越原本在電影使用上的全新領域。為膠片添加視覺效果通常是一種精準的藝術技巧,其效果必需與拍攝的內容無縫接和。它以前是一種困難的功夫,但是是現在的製作人所不用再經歷的過程。將數位效果添加到同一個程序或程序系列的鏡頭裡面,該應用程式還可允許編輯使用在整部電影上,於後期製作中添加效果並且拼湊場景。其中包括音頻,它是一種數位方法確保觀賞者能在每一幕聽到每個詞句和錄像的同步結合方式。最終結果是因其效果與電影的無縫隙接合,它將每部電影清晰化了許多。觀眾通常無法分辨CGI(電腦生成圖像)何時出現在影片中,但它是電影製作者越來越習慣用於設定氛圍的強大工具。

SHOOTING

Shooting in digital is much easier because you can do more in less time. Multiple cameras can run on the same shot, so you always get the angle you want without having to waste time on retakes. I like shooting digitally because it makes it easy to shoot multiple takes, and to get multiple angles more economically. A director’s bread and butter is pace and performance. I love being able to shoot everything. Even, with the actors’ permission, the rehearsals. You never know what pieces you’ll be able to use later in editing.

Coupled with the new steady cam equipment that film has taken a liking to, the end result is a more intimate shot. The audience feels present in the moment because the lens we are allowed to look through feels authentic. Film makers also spend less time re-shooting the same scene to get the right angle.

拍攝

數位化使拍攝更佳容易,因為你可以在更短的時間內完成更多的工作。多個攝影機可以在同一個鏡頭軌道上運行,因此它可以使畫面獲得所需要的每一個角度,而不必浪費時間重新拍攝。我喜歡數位拍攝的方式,因為它可以輕鬆拍攝多張錄像,並且更經濟實惠地獲得多個角度。導演的收入來源將取決於電影的節奏與展現。我喜歡拍攝所有的事物,甚至,我也喜歡拍攝在演員同意之下的排練畫面。你永遠不會知道哪些部分是後期製作時可以拿來使用的。再加上現在在拍攝電影時很喜歡用的新型穩定攝影機齒輪,可以使最終的拍攝成果更貼近實際場景。觀眾在欣賞電影時的感受,因製作使用鏡頭上的多個角度拍攝而感覺更為真實了。電影製作人也花更少的時間重新拍攝同一個現場來獲得更多角度。

 

DISTRIBUTION

The process of distributing film in digital has not quite hit the apex of what it is capable of, but the indie filmmaker especially stands to gain. Distribution through YouTube has been the most common form of marketing for quite some time. Studios have released big-budget trailers, while indie filmmakers have sought funding and interested eyes posting content through various YouTube channels. Of course, the adverse affect is that quality has significantly declined, but that’s more a function of volume. YouTube users also crowd source what is popular with a thumbs up, helping others to find new and interesting content without spending too much time digging for it.

Rights to films are already distributed to consumers digitally, but this market has not been fully tapped. There is much debate as to the future of film consumption, but companies seem willing to distribute films online. The 2011 film Tower Heist with Ben Stiller was almost released to Comcast customers alongside the theatrical release, but the idea was scrapped after several theaters threatened not to show the film in protest. Although digital promises an exciting new world of distribution, the business of film has yet to catch up with this idea.

分配

在數位電影的發行過程中它還尚未達到它所能觸及的最高點,但是獨立電影製作者尤其有望獲益。在很長的一段時間內,透過YouTube進行行銷一直是最常見的推銷模式。電影工作室發布了大量預算的預告片,而獨立電影製作人尋求資金和對其感興趣的(投資者)眼睛透過各種YouTube頻道發佈內容。當然,這種方式的不利影響是使質量顯著的下降,但是這也是更能增加曝光率的方法。YouTube上的用戶也會按讚,並且大肆宣傳時下流行的內容,幫助其他人找到新穎有趣的視頻,而無需花費太多時間來挖掘這些影片。電影的版權已經以數位化的方式分享給消費者,但這個市場還沒有得到充分的利用。關於電影消費的未來還存在很多的爭論,但各家電影公司們似乎滿願意在網路上發行電影。與Ben Stiller班·史提勒合作的2011年的電影“Tower Heist《神偷軍團》”幾乎在電影上檔期間同時授權發行給˙Comcast集團的客戶們,

●  註1.康卡斯特集團,曾用名「康卡斯特控股公司」,是一家位於美國的全球通訊業綜合企業集團;通過Xfinity品牌,其收入在全球電信及有線電視市場均位居第一。

但在幾家劇院威脅是否要院線上檔的抗議之後,這個想法就被廢棄了。雖然數位化承諾給大家帶來一個全新且令人興奮的分享世界,但站在電影院線商業的角度上卻尚未趕上這樣的想法。

PRESERVATION

The preservation of film isn’t something we think about as consumers, but it’s the very reason we still have re-mastered copies of Ben Hurr and the Star Wars trilogy. Film will crumble and damage over time, and it’s extremely flammable too. There are simply too many methods for film to outlive its usefulness. Digital films can be stored on company servers, without taking up too much space. The costs to maintain this infrastructure are also lower than the costs to store and re-master film.

Digital archives are also easy to backup and restore. Pixar had a now famous incident when creating Toy Story 2, where one of the animators lost almost the entire film working on it at home thanks to a bad backup. Aside from this small gaffe, the backup system has allowed production companies’ access to earlier versions of a film, as well as a source to store shots used for dailies and extras.

Without technology, it would be nearly impossible for Hollywood to produce the volume of films that it does. Film might be a nice thought for that vintage feel, but the practicalities of digital have largely put the film versus digital debate to rest.

保存

電影的保存並不是作為消費者的我們所想的,但這也是我們仍然能重新製作賓漢(Ben Hurr)和星際大戰三部曲(Star Wars Trilogy)的副本的原因。隨著時間流逝,電影膠片會瓦解和損壞,而且它的材質非常易燃。對於電影存放來說,有太多的方法可以比保存膠片來的更久更不易損壞。數位化電影可以儲存在公司的伺服器雲端上,而且不會佔用太多的空間。維護這種基礎設施的成本也低於擺()放和重新製作電影的成本。數位化檔案也易於備份和還原。皮克斯Pixar在製作“玩具總動員2”時出現了一個眾所皆知的失誤,其中一位動畫師在家工作時差點搞砸了整部電影,但還好,謝謝有一份不怎麼樣的備份存檔還留著。除了這種小小的失誤以外,備份系統還允許製作公司透過系統編制早期版本的電影,以及把它變成一個用於存取每日日期和每個鏡頭前演員的保險庫。如果沒有這種技術,好萊塢幾乎不可能製作出它現在所擁有的大量電影。對於喜歡老式電影復古感的感覺當然是很好且不同的感官饗宴,但數位化電影跟傳統膠片電影的辯論似乎已經有向前者一面倒的傾向。

 

By Charles Mattau

Translation by Coraline Chuang

Charles Matthau, son of Walter Matthau, is a film and television director best known for adapting books into movies.

 

原著:Charles Matthau查爾斯·馬托烏

譯者:Chuang Shih Ning 莊適寧

Walter Matthau華爾特·馬修兒子Charles Matthau查爾斯·馬托烏他是一位電影及電視導演,最出名的是他將各種書籍改編成電影。