BY SAMANTHA HUNT

Dada was once branded as “anti-art”. I know what you are thinking – how does an art movement rebel against art?

What this means is that they were generally in opposition to everything art stood for. They ignored aesthetics. They affronted sensibilities. In all, their thoughts concerning traditional culture were also thoughts of destruction.

It was said by the American Art News that their philosophy was “the sickest, most paralyzing and most destructive thing that has ever originated from the brain of man.” The artists themselves called it “a phenomenon bursting forth in the midst of the post-war economic and moral crisis, a savior, a monster, which would lay waste to everything in its path. [It was] a systematic work of destruction and demoralization… In the end it became nothing but an act of sacrilege.”

So what does the term “Dada” actually means? The name was apparently found by opening a dictionary at random, and is the French for “hobby-horse”. Some might call it symbolic, standing for the presence of the absurd and the role of chance in their art work, like in the compositions of Jean Arp, who created a piece by dropping scraps of paper onto cardboard, before turning them over and sticking them down where they landed.

Dadaism initially emerged in Zurich on 8 February 1916 with its name appearing that year for the first time in the pamphlet Cabaret Voltaire.  It materialized in Paris, New York, Cologne, Berlin and Hanover during its lifetime, peaking between 1916 and 1922 before officially vanishing in 1924.

Dada曾經被標示為”反藝術。”我知道你在想什麼─藝術運動如何反抗藝術?這意味著在一切為藝術代表中他們互相存在於對立的立場。他們忽視美學。他藐視敏感。總之,他們對於傳統文化思考方式有著毀滅性的想法。美國藝術新聞論壇(American Art News)以他們的哲學來說是從人類的大腦發源起之”具最大的”最癱瘓與最具破壞性的事情。藝術家們也是這樣稱呼它”在戰後經濟中爆發的一種現象以及道德危機, 救世主, 怪物, 這運動終將一切浪費在它通往的道路上”。這是一個破壞性並使士氣低落的行為…最後, 這只淪為是一種褻瀆的行為。

那麼, “Dada”一詞究竟意味著什麼呢? 這個名字顯然是隨機打開一本字典所找到的, 在法語中稱之為” hobby-horse”(不是愛馬人士,它是別人早就聽膩、自己卻樂此不彼的話題)。有人稱它為象徵性的, 代表著荒謬的存在, 以及一個在藝術作品中代表”機會”的腳色, 就像Jean Arp (讓·阿爾普,德語名 漢斯), 他的創作是在紙板上滴下紙屑, 再把它們翻過來之前, 把它們黏在它們所降落的地方。達達主義最初於1916年2月8日誕生於蘇黎世, 當年這個名字第一次出現在”伏爾泰”的小冊子裡面。這種創作方式在巴黎, 紐約, 科隆, 柏林和和漢諾威市被物體化, 並且在1916年和1922年達致頂峰, 然後於1924年正式消失殆盡。

It was a protest movement formed in the heat of the First World War, remonstrating against bourgeois nationalist and colonialist values that many of the artists believed caused the war. They hated conformity in both art and society, rejecting standards and ridiculing the conformists of a modern world that they saw as lacking direction and meaning.

They painted, they wrote, they composed, they gathered publicly, demonstrated, and published their media, all as part of their Dadaist protest. Their world was being torn apart by war, and they had to fight back with their violence, their humor, their scandal and derision. Art was being exploited as a means of deception, and so they rebelled with their own form of expression. They rejected the “logic” that they labeled bourgeois and instead followed a path into illogical chaos.

這是第一次世界大戰時形成時的抗議運動, 他們反對資產民族主義以及殖民主義的價值觀, 許多藝術家被認為他們造成了這場戰爭。他們討厭藝術和社會的一致性, 拒絕標準且嘲笑現代世界的順從者, 他們認為在那時代缺乏方向和他們認為所謂的意義。

他們繪畫, 他們書寫, 他們組成召集並且公開聚會, 展示他們的媒體創作, 這些都是達達主義抗議的一部分。他們的世界被世界戰爭給撕裂, 他們不得不用暴力, 他們的幽默以及醜聞, 嘲笑來予以回擊, 當時藝術被利用作為一種欺騙的手段, 所以他們用自己的方式來表達與反抗。他們拒絕走上一條稱之為資產階級”邏輯”的道路, 而是踏上一條不符合當時邏輯的渾沌之路。

For the Dadaists, it wasn’t just about the oil painting. Photographs, newspaper cuttings, wood, cloth, wool and sand were joined together to form a rebellious and sometimes temporary and perishable art-form, bringing together painting and sculpture to meet in the middle to confuse the rules of classification. “Merz” became a type of collage constructed from objects found in the street, whilst assemblages were the three-dimensional versions, held together by nails and screws. They used the photomontage (pieces made by gluing photographic media images together) to present their views of the increasingly media-shaped world.

Example artists from the house of Dada were Francis Picabia, Raoul Hausmann, Marcel Duchamp and Kurt Schwitters, for starters.

So, in traditional Blue Peter style, let’s all sit down and make a collage. And if we make it out of what we find in the street, we might just be the new Dada. Who knows?

對於達達主義者來說, 這不只是關於油畫。他由照片, 簡報, 木頭, 布料, 羊毛和沙粒所結合在一起, 形成一種叛逆的, 有時是暫時性的, 易腐爛的藝術形式, 他將繪畫和雕塑聚合在一塊, 混淆分類的規則化。” Merz”(梅爾茲) 變成了一種從街道上可發現由物體構成的拼貼畫, 而它則由三維性質所組成, 透過釘子和螺絲釘在一塊。他們使用了蒙太奇(透過將照相媒體圖片交合在一起製成的部分), 以日益形成的媒體型態世界來提出自身的看法。

來自達達藝術家們的先鋒例子是Francis Picabia, Raoul Hausmann, Marcel Duchamp 和 Kurt Schwitters (弗朗西斯·皮卡比亞,拉烏爾·豪斯曼,馬塞爾·杜尚和庫特·施維特斯。)

所以, 在傳統的Blue Peter style(藍色彼得)風格中, 讓我們一起來拼貼, 如果我們在街道上發現某些拼貼, 這會不會有可能會是新的達達風格, 又有誰知道呢?!

By Samanthan Hunt published by Varsity, Cambridge UK

Varsity is Cambridge University’s independent student newspaper, published every Friday of term time and available to all students, staff and friends of the University since 1947.

Samanthan Hunt英國劍橋Varsity出版社出版

Varsity劍橋大學的獨立學生報, 1947年以來, 每週五出版發行, 並提供給所有學生與教職員和讀者們。

譯文撰寫Translator ─ Coraline Chuang