“Surrealism: Pure psychic automatism by which we propose to express, either verbally or in writing or in any other way, the actual functioning of thinking. Surrealism is inspired by the thinking process, with the absence of any control of rationale, outside of any aesthetic or moral concern.”

André Breton, Manifeste du Surréalisme, 1924

「超現實主義是思維的實際功能,可以用口頭、書面或任何其他方式呈現,是人們受到純粹的心靈刺激時的自動性表現。超現實主義發自思維過程,這個過程排除任何理性、美學、與道德上的控制。」

安德烈·布勒東(André Berton, 1924):超現實主義宣言 (Manifeste du surréalisme)

 A concept mirroring the sentiment of the 1920’s

Surrealism is a term created by Guillaume Apollinaire. This is actually an artistic movement about aesthetics made by various factors. In fact, Surrealism relies on a constant research of novelty, an authentic need for evasion and a change in perception of reality…

During the period [1919-1939], there were some significant changes on how perception for visual content and imagery was regarded. That evolution mainly came from different inspirations: firstly, from the post-war state of mind when people sought for new ways for evasion; secondly, from the new technological innovations that made possible to transform artistic production and allowed creativity to go beyond what was done at that present time. In the end, that new perception was a new way of thinking that fuelled creation through a new cultural and art movement more innovative, more revolutionary, and more controversial. The inception of the new photography surrealist movement in France was linked to a movement born in Switzerland and Germany that was called “Dada”. “Dada” was a movement based on the reaction against “bourgeoisie”, society, politics, and war… Dada movement split into two trends of thinking that caused the birth of Surrealism.

When Surrealism was born, different groups of influencers and photographers were formed in several countries such as France, Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, the United States, Portugal, Japan…

Actually, three key people in the 1920’s: André Breton a French poet, writer and also Surrealism theorist; Louis Aragon, another French poet novelist and journalist and finally Philippe Soupault, a French poet who was also considered as one of the founder of the Surrealism movement developed the main concept and directions that led to Surrealism in France. The German painter and sculptor Max Ernst was also involved in the development of this way of thinking. Together with André Breton, the two influencers searched for something not present in culture and art at their era, so they focused on their own perception of society. They wanted to highlight and exploit the dynamics of unconsciousness over consciousness. The best tool to experience these dynamics was to use dreams and fantasy vision.

From these ideas and perceptions, a great way of thinking was born and impacted Culture and Art. However, it took more time to infuse photography as a media, so surrealist photography did not really emerge right away. Indeed, the official beginning of the surrealist photography is dating from the André Breton Manifesto in 1924. All surrealists agreed that the discovery of photography was the best expression of Surrealism because this was absolutely “surreal” to have the ability to freeze an image which can report about the world surrounding us…

From this perspective, one can easily understand that surrealism is not only a literary theory but something more practical like a way of being, a way of handling reality because everything relied on interpretation of reality: “Surrealism tends to reveal our psychic awareness by using our own senses to reinvent the experience of touching the world”.

Photography wass a media used by surreal artists as a language to express their visual imagery and their surreal thoughts. On the other hand, writers used it as well as a visual aid for their thoughts. Images were alive, especially through the various surrealist publications in some magazines and books, so that their authors could be also called surrealists.

 1920年代的情感投射

「超現實主義」一詞由紀堯姆·阿波利奈爾(Guillaume Apollinaire)首度提出。它本來是一場藝術運動,討論美的各種要素,非常重視對「創新」持續不斷的研究。那是一個人們對「現實」的看法遭逢極大變動的年代,超現實主義的出現正反映出當時的人們對逃避的渴望。

1919年到1939年之間,人們對視覺與影像的觀點有了顯著的改變,而這個改變是由若干不同的事件觸發產生的。首先,於戰後時期,人們在心靈上探尋各種逃避現實的方法;其次,科技革新改變了過去傳統的藝術形式,使藝術創作得以展現更加豐富的創意。結果,這個新觀點成為人們思維方式的焦點,並刺激創作透過新文化和藝術運動,變得更為創新、更富革命性與爭議性。

攝影的超現實主義源於法國,並且與誕生於瑞士和德國的「達達主義」藝術運動關係密切。達達運動源於對「布爾喬瓦」階級、社會、政治與戰爭等的反對情感。達達主義後來發展為兩派,其一便是一般所認定的「超現實主義」之始。

影響「超現實主義」的攝影師散佈在法國、南斯拉夫、捷克斯拉夫、美國、葡萄牙、日本…等數個國家。其中,1920年代的三位關鍵人物為:安德烈·布勒東(André Berton)—法國詩人、作家兼超現實主義者;路易·阿拉貢(Louis Aragon)—另一位法國詩人、小說家兼記者;以及菲利普·蘇波(Philippe Soupault)—法國詩人,同時也被認為是奠定「超現實主義」主要概念與方向,並將之引入法國的元老之一。在這段思維方法的發展過程裡,德國畫家及雕塑家馬克斯·恩斯特(Max Ernst)也參與其中。他與安德烈·布列東及另外兩位先驅,一同研究在當時的文化及藝術領域中不存在的元素,試圖超越意識去探索潛意識。而體驗潛意識的最佳工具便是夢與幻覺。

 藉由這些想法及感知,一種新穎的思維方式誕生了,並且對文化界和藝術界都產生了相當的衝擊。然而,攝影還又多花了一點時間才被社會大眾接受為媒體的一種,因此超現實攝影並沒有馬上嶄露出頭角。

事實上,根據官方說法,超現實主義真正起點是安德烈·布列東於1924年所提出的「超現實主義宣言」。所有的超現實主義者都同意,最適合表現超現實主義的,就是探究攝影—因為將一個影像「凍結」起來,照實展現出我們周遭的環境…沒有什麼比這更「超現實」的了。

從這個角度來看,人們就可以輕易地瞭解,超現實主義並非僅止於文學理論,而是更實際的,身為生命、一種掌握現實的方式,因為現實中的一切都需要釋義。「超現實主義能利用我們自身的感官來揭開我們的潛意識,使我們重新探索、觸摸這個世界。」

攝影這個媒體被超現實藝術家當成一種語言,來表現他們的視覺想像及超現實的想法。他們透過各種雜誌、書籍展現近乎有生命的影像,因此這些作者也可以被稱作「超現實主義者」。

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Photography: a “surreal” project

Surrealism as a project evolved into two directions: firstly, “the automation of abstract” which was losing control over images; secondly, “the illusionist academy”, in other word how to search for the ways and paths that lead to surreal. Actually, these two main concepts referred to Freud values developed by the psychoanalyst as “automatism” and “dream”.

When André Breton spoke about photography, he declared: “We must not practice the art of imitation for objects. Our challenge is to create a new world establishing new ties and boundaries between objects and or the elements represented in order to create a new order: this is a mental effort to reveal the essence of beauty”.

For the surrealist, photography was a great challenge for the simple reason being: each project was a new experience to (re)test the two main directions just introduced above. As a result, managing different ways caused the birth of a certain idea of art by creating and producing images. When you think about, it literally means to combine several concepts to let your unconsciousness take over consciousness to have a free mind to conceive and design imagery. In this process making, the most confusing part for the surrealists was the issue of perception and representation. The dilemma came from the fact that “perception” is “the immediate experience” versus “representation” which is how to report about the outcomes of the experience.

To illustrate this dilemma, there was a great example: the movement. In photography: the idea, the perception and the representation of movement were a case study that showed that there was no way to unify perception and experience. Somehow, only convergence could

exist…

 攝影—一項「超現實」的計畫

超現實主義發展為兩種方向:其一是「抽象的自動性」,意指拋棄圖像控制;其二是「幻象研究」,換句話說,就是探索導向超現實的各種門道路徑。事實上,這兩種主要概念後來都發展為弗洛伊德的中心思想,亦即心理學家所謂「自動性記述法」與「夢的研究」。

當安德烈·布勒東談到攝影,他表示:「我們絕不能練習摹仿的藝術。我們所面臨的挑戰是要創造一個新世界,其中,我們要在代表秩序的元素之間建立新的秩序與界線,從而創造出新的秩序—不經歷這樣的精神努力,就無法揭開美的本質。」

對超現實主義者來說,攝影是個極佳的挑戰,原因很簡單:每次作業都是一個新的機會,可以針對上述的兩個方向試驗、再試驗。透過不同的操縱方法來創造、產生影像,一種特定的藝術概念隨之誕生。只要仔細想想,你就能明白,這代表我們可以結合這幾種概念,使潛意識接管我們的意識,思維變得百分之百自由,並從而構想、設計影像。在這段過程中,最讓超現實主義者困惑的就是感知與表現的問題。這個難題在於:「感知」究竟是「直接經驗」還是「表述」?這又連帶引發另一個問題:如何呈現經驗的成果?

有個很好的例子可以說明這個困境:肉身動作。在攝影的概念中,感知與經驗是無法統一的—只有可能融合。

Inspirations & influencers

One of the main creative and driving forces of Surrealism came from the precursors, all the people who came before the movement to shape and lead the momentum. For instance, painting was a game changer in the surreal perception because this art allowed many artists to start to question themselves about some directions explored in the Surrealism movement. After spending time to make some research, to craft techniques, surrealist precursors enriched their art with new concepts and ideas that later will benefit to Surrealism way of thinking. To mention a few, it is good to refer to some key influencers like “the French alchemist” Nicolas Flamel (1330 – 1418), the Dutch painter Hieronymus Bosch (1450- 1516), the Italian painter Giuseppe Arcimboldo (1526 or 1527 – 1593), the Italian painter and mathematician Paolo Uccello (1397 – 1475), the Spanish painter Francisco de Goya (1746 – 1828), the English painter, poet and printmaker William Blake (1757 – 1827), the German painter Caspar David Friedrich (1774 – 1840), and the English writer, mathematician, logician, photographer Lewis Carrol (1832 – 1898).

In terms of pure photographer, the influences and inspirations were personified by the key figure of Photography: the American visual artist pioneer Man Ray (1890 – 1976). He was a great contributor to Dada and Surrealism movements.

啟發與影響

「超現實主義」最主要的創造力與動力來自那些運動發起前的大前輩,他們早先的藝術活動潛移默化地影響了超現實主義發展的樣貌與方向。舉例來說,繪畫讓許多藝術家開始質疑他們在超現實運動中探索的方向,因而改變了超現實觀點中的遊戲規則。超現實主義的前輩花了許多時間研究、精進技術,將新概念、新想法注入他們的作品,這些作品後來都成為超現實主義思維的養分。在此僅舉出幾個重要的影響者,如「法國鍊金術士」尼古拉·弗拉梅爾(Nicolas Flamel 1330-1418),荷蘭畫家耶羅尼米斯·博斯(Hieronymus Bosch 1450-1516),義大利畫家朱塞佩·阿爾欽博托(Giuseppe Arcimboldo 1526或1527-1593),義大利畫家兼數學家保羅·烏切洛(Paolo Uccello 1397-1475),西班牙畫家弗朗西斯柯·哥雅(Fancisco de Goya 1746-1828),英國畫家、詩人兼版畫家威廉·布萊克(William Blake 1757-1827),德國畫家卡斯巴·弗列德利赫(Caspar David Friedrich

1774-1840),以及英國作家、數學家、邏輯學家兼攝影家路易斯

·卡羅(Lewis Carrol 1832-1898)等。

就純粹的攝影家而言,有一位關鍵人物具體地影響、啟發了攝影,即對達達運動及超現實運動都有極大的貢獻、倡導美國視覺藝術的先驅—曼·雷(Man Ray 1890-1976)。

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The first Surrealist photographers

Man Ray was literally the “avant-garde” of photography. He brought the art to the next level by using innovative techniques in order to re-define photography.  Man Ray did not only discover new visual ways to show reality through lenses, he also revamped the photograph as art. Similarly, the German painter Christian Schad (1894 – 1982) was one of the pioneers of the Schadograph technique. He crafted this “photohram” technique so well that his name was then attached to the photographic technique. All the Schad’s work was an enriching source of inspiration for Man Ray who developed the technique to the point that we then talked about “Rayograph”.

“Man Ray made his “rayographs” without a camera by placing objects such as the thumbtacks, coil of wire, and other circular forms directly on a sheet of photosensitized paper and exposing it to light. Hovering between the abstract and the representational, the “Rayographs” revealed a new way of seeing that delighted the Dadaist poets who

championed his work.”

Another major player in the surrealist photography is the French Eugène Atget (1857 – 1927). What made Atget’s artwork remarkable was certainly not the technique he used which was considered as such, but the photographic end result. Indeed, his photographs introduced a bared vision of reality, they gave off a certain magic. They participated in Surrealism movement as the rest of his production featured in some magazines and in some writings works as ‘illustrations’… One of of the most famous Atget’s surrealist photographs is “Corsets, boulevard de Strasbourg” taken in 1910 and used as an illustration in Andre Breton’s poem/collage work produced in May 1919 called “Le Corset mystere”

(“The Mystery Corset”).

超現實攝影家之祖

曼·雷是攝影界實實在在的「先鋒」。他利用創新的科技將攝影藝術推向一個新的層級,重新定義了攝影。他不但透過鏡頭發現了展現視覺真實的新方法,更將攝影帶入藝術的殿堂。同時,德國畫家克里斯強·夏德(Christian Shad 1894-1982)則是夏德攝影(Shadograph)技術的始祖之一。他大大地改進了「物影攝影」(photogram,又稱「黑影攝影」)技巧,終使自己的名字成為這種攝影技巧的代稱。夏德的作品啟發曼·雷,而曼·雷又再將這項技術發展為以他命名的「實物投影」(Rayograph,又稱「無相機攝影」)。

「曼·雷的『實物投影』不使用相機,而將圖釘、線圈、或其他環狀物件直接放置於相紙上,並直接曝照在光下。實物投影法的作品徘徊於抽象與具象之間,開啟了嶄新的『觀看』方式,受到達達主義者的喜愛與擁護。」

另外一位重量級的超現實攝影家,是法國的厄詹·阿杰(Eugène Atget 1857-1927)。雖然阿杰的技巧過人,然而使其藝術作品卓越非凡的絕非只是技巧,而是其相片的成果。他的攝影作品呈現出赤裸的真實感,散發著一種魔力。他的作品除了實踐超現實主義以外,亦有部份以「插圖」之姿活躍於雜誌、文章中。阿杰最有名的超現實攝影作品之一「史特拉斯堡大道上的馬甲」(Corset, boulevard de Strasbourg)攝於1910年,並刊載在安德烈·布勒東於1919年出版的拼貼詩集「神祕馬甲」(Le Corset mystère)中,作為插圖。

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Surrealism & Techniques

Surrealism in photography has two kinds of photographs: photographs that depend on a technical manipulation and photographs that depend on research. The other main features of surrealist techniques are the level of photographic control implied to magnify the experimental approach.

There is a partial ‘abandonment’ in the process making because the camera as a device becomes meaningless. It is important to remember that at the origins, the word “photography” means: “writing with light”. Overall, for some surrealist photographers the device is superfluous, behind this point of view, there is the main conception that the unreflective photograph is part of our perception. We commonly use ‘automation’ in daily life to interact with environment and people, so photographers craft some techniques to report what we perceive immediately without thinking: the photogram, photomontage, space writing, collage, manipulation with mirrors, solarization, overprint, fossilization, framing, re-defined creation limits. Although the surrealist artists’ favorite themes were more or less limited to the vision of woman, nudity and the object; they managed to experiment creativity in representation, in aesthetics for those recurring themes with innovative techniques.

In Surrealism, photography did not have the same place as other artistic media. Imagery was revealed through technical experiment to translate the thoughts of perception. There was no real theory, but a strong desire to abandon the device: the camera. In fact, it should only be the way of thinking that should  guide our perception to unconsciousness and fantasy.

Creativity is definitely the key to make disruption and open the door to new possibilities. I guess that has been the main legacy that

we get from Surrealism movement.

From the remarkable work of Mrs Laurence Valentin:

“LE SURREALISME ET LA PHOTOGRAPHIE (1919-1939)”

1998 École Nationale Supérieure LOUIS LUMIERE

超現實主義與技術

超現實攝影的照片有兩個特點:其一是照片皆為透過深入研究及技巧操作下的成果,其二是對攝影有極高程度的控制。在這個製造影像的過程中,有一個部分「被放棄」了,因為相機這個儀器失去了存在的價值。值得記住的是,「攝影」這個詞最初的意義是:「倚光書寫」。對某些超現實攝影家來說,相機是多餘的,在這樣的觀點背後,有個重要的概念在支撐—沒有成像的照片是我們感知的一部份。我們在日常生活中普遍地用「自動性行為」與環境和人群互動,因此攝影家們改進技巧,用以呈現我們最直

接的感知。

這些技巧諸如物影攝影、蒙太奇、空間摹寫(space writing)、拼貼(collage)、鏡子的運用、過度曝光、多重曝光、化石化(fossilization)、分幅攝影(framing)等,重新定義了創作的極限。即便超現實藝術家最喜愛的主題多少侷限在女人、裸體等題材的視覺表現,他們仍然想盡辦法在這些一再重複的主題中,於表現方法、於美學都用各種創新的技巧來實驗他們的創意。

在超現實主義中,攝影與其他藝術媒體有不同的地位。影像經由技術性實驗過程,為感知想法作釋義。這其中並沒有真的理論,只有強烈的、拋棄儀器—亦即相機—的慾望。人們對「何為超現實」的想法非常主觀,而這正是將我們的感知牽引向潛意識與幻

想的一種思維方式。

毋庸置疑地,創造力是開啟新大門、通往崩解與新的可能性的鑰匙。我想,這就是超現實主義運動遺留給我們最重要的禮物吧!

本文出處:Laurence Valentin(1919-1939):超現實主義與攝影

(LE SURREALISME ET LA PHOTOGRAPHIE)

者 / Sanza Bulaya

譯 / Becky Chen