Ernest Hemingway –

歐內思特.海明威

A man who received the Pulitzer Prize in 1953 and the Literature Noble Prize in 1954 must be a man of excellence in his field. Everyone knows Ernest Hemingway as the great writer who spent most his time life being a connoisseur of the pleasures of life: hunting, fishing, writing, traveling, drinking… He was also a complete artist, playing with words to shape stories and characters with enjoyment and passion.

這位既獲得1953年普立茲獎、又同時是1954年諾貝爾得主的名家,想當然,是其所擅領域的箇中翹楚。眾所週知,海明威除了是優秀作家,也是享受生活的行家,打獵、釣魚、寫作、旅行、飲酒。。。他是一名徹底的藝術家,以享受和熱情悠遊在文字打造的故事情節與人物描述之間。

Behind the artist was the man. In order to portray one of the most remarkable writers in English-speaking literature, I am going to exclusively focus on a major trend of the History of Art: W A R. Indeed, W A R is a powerful trend because it is a disruptive and violent confrontation between ideas that marks key society, political, economic, environmental and cultural changes. Artists, philosophers, creators, politicians, entrepreneurs and other influencers have always been capturing some glimpse of that chaos. In this essay, I stare at W A R as a trendy pattern in the History of Art to understand what the implications are when it comes to being engaged as an artist.

在藝術家的外衣下,他是個率直血性之人。為了描繪這位英文文學巨擘,我將討論聚焦於藝術史上的主流命題之一:戰爭。沒有異議地,戰爭題材之所以是股重要流派,正因為它標誌了核心群體、政治、經濟、環境、與文化變遷過程之撕裂和暴力。藝術家、哲學家、創作者、政客、企業家、以及任何具影響力者,無不和這種混亂之局有所牽扯。下文中,我嘗試把戰爭看做藝術史上一種潮流形式、並以藝術家的眼光來理解它所隱匿的寓意。

I do think in the current state of emergency of our planet in year 2016, this is still modernity to think of W A R as an Art inspiration. I do think that Ernest Hemingway was a true combatant who faced extreme situations to give birth to his creative inspirations in the field of literature. The underlying question we need to keep in mind when reviewing his commitment to is: to which extend ART can be considered as activism. Everyone has an opinion I guess…

即便在地球遭逢危難的當下,我仍覺得把戰爭視為藝術靈感是頗具當代性的。海明威確然是一名鬥士,在極端險峻狀態裡仍舊創造出傳世巨著。面對他的堅定犧牲,我們需要思考的是:極致的藝術追求與激進主義的分野線,究竟在哪裡?我想這個答案應該見仁見智了。。。

CALL OF DUTY

天命召喚

Ernest Hemingway (1899-1961) is an American writer born in Oak Park, Illinois (USA). As a young student, he gave-up university to become a reporter for the newspaper Kansas City Star.

海明威(1899-1961),生於伊利諾州的橡園鎮,美國作家。他年輕時為了成為記者,放棄就讀大學,並在堪薩斯城市星報任職。

After this first experience on the ground as a journalist, he felt another level of commitment to fulfill himself… He decided to join the W A R in Europe. He left America at a young age to get closer to the combat zone as an ambulance driver for Red Cross in Italy during World War I. Hemingway took the call: he was at W A R.

繼有了新聞記者的初體驗,他更進一步感受到一種自我實現的堅定需求。。。他決定親身加入歐洲的戰事。於是這名年輕人在一戰期間到了義大利,為紅十字會擔任救護車司機以便近距離接觸烽火區。海明威順應了他的天命,加入了戰爭。

IF I DIE IN THE COMBAT ZONE

如果我死於烽火

Ernest Hemingway was a personality full of passion and committed to the causes and fights he believed in. Along his personal and literary life, he used the concept of “conflict” as a context to set his life choices as well as his stories background. For example, in his novels, he often used different images to represent the combat zone he was engaged in during the war. In his literature imagery, it could be a boxing ring or a bull pit for Spanish bullfighters dancing with death. W A R allowed him to develop and mature a backdrop of creativity.

海明威是一個激情而願意為信仰而犧牲的人。不管在真實或虛構的世界,他把「矛盾」視為自己人生或故事背景的設定概念。比方在他的小說中,他經常以不同的形象來象徵他曾親身經歷的烽火鬥爭。在他的作品裡,那可以是一只拳擊冠軍戒,或者一隻與死亡共舞的西班牙鬥牛犬。戰爭主題讓他的創意恣意發展而愈臻熟練。

THIS IS WAR: WWI

真實戰爭:第一次世界大戰

Ernest Hemingway entered into W A R as a soldier in the Italian infantry during the World War I. In 1918, on July 8th, he was wounded on the Italian front. Being close to death is a characteristic of that adventurous man who experienced fighting in its most violent form. In the chaos of W A R, passion and emotions are exalted and they are instrumented to describe and reveal the essence of life, death, hope, suffering, love… As a writer, Hemingway used his W A R experience to fuel his inspiration. The main difference between many artists and the greatest American writer is: he was literally at war fighting on the front as a soldier. Most of his peers have only been quiet observers of operations. Ernest Hemingway was a true actor, engaged in some operations. At some point, this is a fundamental difference to ensure grant some authority to writers on W A R related topics. There is no need to have a long record of act of valor, but at least, a brief exposure to that sad reality.

海明威在一戰期間加入了義大利步兵團,並在1918年7月8號於前線負傷。這樣的瀕死經驗讓這位具有冒險性格的男人,以最暴力的形式體會了爭鬥的特殊性。在混亂的戰事中,熱忱與激情變得更為崇高,並與生命、死亡、希望、苦難、愛等等的表述和揭示,共譜為一曲協奏樂章。海明威以戰爭經驗為他的文學靈感加料。身為美國最偉大的作家,他和其他諸多藝術家的不同點是,他實實在在地上陣打過仗,而那些同儕作家們充其量僅僅是戰事的觀察和轉述者。海明威是一名具體進行的行動家。某種意義而言,這是戰爭題材作家們區別作品權威性的本質比較基礎;也許不須有長時間的參與,不過至少需要丁點的親身經歷,才可以令作品具備說服力。

ART & WAR

藝術與戰爭

At the end of the W A R, Hemingway stayed in Europe and joined the group of some foreign writers and artists based in Paris. He became journalist of the newspaper “Star” based in Paris. To some extent, Hemingway did a good use of these war experiences; he translated these moments of chaos and violence into a literature experience called “A farewell to Arms” in 1929. Hemingway found a way to let L O V E emerge from the dark context of war. Clearly, we observe that there was no opposition between W A R and L O V E for the writer, however there was a causality linkage because along the story we understand that W A R can condition L O V E.  As a result, a love story was born between two characters that depicted a generation of people with no hope due to wars striking Europe. For the artist, we can say that being engaged at war was an unconscious constant aspiration to boost his cynical inspiration. As a man deprived from belief in moral values, Hemingway found in W A R a way to explore human emotions. “A farewell to Arms”, his second greatest novel had been a post-war therapy for a man looking for a noble cause to fight for.

戰事終了,海明威留在歐洲,加入巴黎的外國作家與藝術家群體。他開始在巴黎星報擔任記者工作。海明威善加利用了他在戰事經驗到的混亂暴力素材,在1929年完成了小說《戰地春夢》。他將愛置放到黑暗的戰爭題材裡。顯然地,對作者來說,戰爭與愛並不衝突,不過,做為故事裡的因果連結,戰爭卻可以為愛創造條件。就結果來說,這是個發生在沒有希望的被戰爭蹂躪的歐洲、一對具有世代代表性的主人翁的愛情故事。我們可以說,他的潛意識的渴望,正是以參戰來強化一種憤世的靈感。做為一個不再相信世俗價值的人,海明威在戰爭中找到了揭露人性真實情感的道路。《戰地春夢》這本他的作品,成為他為高貴目的持續堅持的戰後療癒解藥。

“On Sunday the Paris Tribune review calls “A Farewell to Arms” technically and stylistically the most interesting novel of the year… a blossoming of a most unusual genius. The story was brutal… awesome… terrific… vulgar… beautiful.”*

「週日的巴黎論壇報稱《戰地春夢》不論是技巧上或文體上,都堪為年度最佳小說。。。一位不世天才的崛起。這是一個殘暴的、極佳的、可怖的、粗鄙的、卻美麗的故事。」

“In ten years of continuous work, he [Hemingway] has transformed himself from the precocious, war-wounded teenager writing clichéd imitations into one of the best young writers of his generation. At twenty-four he had little to show for all his ambition; at twenty-nine he has written two of his century’s best novels.”*

「歷經十年不輟的寫作,他(海明威)從一名早慧、撰寫老套摹仿文字的戰爭陰影少年,成長為同輩之中最優秀的作家。當24歲時,他徒具一腔野心與熱情,到了29歲,他已然完成了他的兩本世紀巨著。」

 BACK TO WAR: The Spanish Civil War

返回戰場:西班牙內戰

War is back again… During the Spanish Civil war, Hemingway went back to Europe to cover the events as a war correspondent, in other words, he returned close to the front. From this period he wrote « Whom the bells tolls »that was published in 1940.  This novel was inspired from the Spanish W A R, the spirit of the story lies on the concept of Freedom. The author ambition was to show the danger of losing Freedom. When Freedom is in danger in some places, it is likely to threaten Freedom as a key value in the world. Therefore, the activist chose to defend freedom beyond his origins and his own destiny. For him: fighting is a universal mindset to establish a better world. I see in this view an idealist vision of the world, a vision that encompassed geopolitics issues in Europe in the first half of the 20th century to reach out a vision of Literature and Activism. Some says that “Whom the bells tolls” is the Hemingway most famous master piece.

戰爭再起。海明威以一名戰地記者的身分回到歐洲,參與了西班牙內戰,再度接近前線。此時他創作了《戰地鐘聲》,並於1940年出版。小說取材自西班牙國內反法西斯戰爭,故事的主軸關乎自由的抗爭。作者企圖彰顯自由失去之際的危險代價。當自由已在某些地區岌岌可危,自由就應該被視為世界上的核心價值之一。這位激進的行動派,於是便為了異域他鄉的自由而參戰。對他來說,鬥爭是種為了讓世界更加美好而生的宇宙觀。我能理解,這種觀點在二十世紀前半葉籠罩了歐洲的地緣政治,同時也影響了當時的文學和激進主義。有人認為,《戰地鐘聲》是海明威最具聲譽的名作。

This is WAR (again): WWII

真實戰爭:第二次世界大戰

Europe entered into chaos one more time. Most of developed nations have to decide to join a camp. Individuals are also questioned to make some choices: to fight, to resist, to escape, or to simply die? Again, Hemingway chose to take the call and went back to war. He participated in the Allied Invasion of Normandy and the Liberation of Paris as a journalist. Hemingway was at the core of the events, refusing to just be a quiet observer but taking words as a weapon.

歐洲再度陷入極度混亂局面。多數的國家決定參與戰事聯盟,人們也陷於抗爭、抵禦、逃離、或殉國的抉擇難題中。海明威選擇回到戰場。他以記者身分參與了諾曼第登陸與巴黎解放戰事。海明威積極地以筆代劍,參與戰爭核心行動。

“Soldiers die like animals, some from wounds seemingly slight but deep enough to serve. Others die like cats: a skull broken in and iron in the brain, they lie alive two days like cats that crawl into the coal bon with the bullet in the brain and will not die until you have cut off their heads.*” – “A natural history of the dead” (1933) is Ernest Hemingway’s cynical recollection of war.

「士兵們如同牲畜般死亡;有些傷口也許看來輕微,卻深可致命,有些像垂死之貓般不堪:子彈卡在頭殼掀開的腦袋裡,像在煤堆裡爬行垂死的貓,苟延殘喘著,只有砍下了腦袋,他們才可以真正得到安息。」《死亡的自然史》(1933)是海明威控訴戰爭的憤世作品集。

 “Hemingway is a man born in his due time, embodying to perfection the mute longings and confused ideals of a large segment of his own and the succeeding generation. He is the unhappy warrior that many men would like to be. About him has sprung up a real contemporary hero-myth.”*

「海明威生而逢時,具體美化了他自己和後世龐大的幽暗願望與擺盪理念。他是許多男人夢想成為的抑鬱鬥士。他撩撥起了一個真實的當代英雄神話。」

 When Europe was at W A R, Ernest Hemingway was a soldier. A soldier who turned his war experience into beauty: literature. One can also express activism through different forms of Art and this is the greatest legacy of this writer who impulsed a new perception of WAR in the history of Art. As we can see nowadays, it’s still a persistent trend…

當歐陸陷於戰事之時,海明威成了一名沙場兵員,同時把他的沙場經驗值轉化為美的產出:文學。他並且以不同的藝術之姿傳遞了激進與行動主義,這也是這位文學巨擘推動藝術史之新戰爭命題時,所型塑出的偉岸成就。時至今日,我們仍然可以得見其深遠的影響。。。

Sanza Bulaya

Translated by Seven YCH

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